In recent years when students sit for local, national or international exams, they mostly do not get the results they wished to. This according to my research may not be as a result of poor preparation for the examination by the students (as it is widely rumored), rather it is chiefly due to the poor understanding of the different technical terms/words used by the examiner in creating the questions. i have seen students spending hours in the exam hall, ruminating on a particular idea, confused on what answers the examiner really needs them to supply, only for them to come out miserably from the exam hall and ask a colleague what the examiner wanted from them and s/he explains what was required of them to do, and immediately they screams ‘ah!! i thought of that o, that lecturer is very trickish’. But, hey! worry no more as this post will give you a better understanding of what the examiner needs from you, therefore, putting you in a pole position to score higher than you normally do.

Below are the major terms/verbs examiners use while setting an exam, and i will enjoin you to put them to heart as they will forever be of help to you..

Account for: – give reasons

Analyse: – find the main ideas, discuss them and consider their relevant importance

Comment: – discuss, criticize and explain the idea in details

Compare: – show the differences and similarities

Contrast:-emphasize the difference

Criticize: – give your opinions showing both good and bad points, support your judgement with evidence and examples

Describe: – write a detailed account of the object, process and event

Discuss: – write in details, using arguments both for and against and then summarize and conclude

Enumerate:-write a numbered list or outline of the main points

Evaluate: – using your own ideas or that of others, discuss the worth of the statement, test its veracity and degree of importance. Take a decision

Explain: – interpret and clarify, giving your own reasons

Illustrate: – use concrete examples, comparisons and perhaps diagrams

Justify: – give convincing reasons in support of the statement

State: – describe precisely the most important aspect of the topic

Summarize: – omitting details and illustrations, give only the main points in order of importance

Trace: – describe the history, process or development of the subject.

So, here we are, you now have these tools at your disposal, match forward into the exam halls and show them what you are made of…………………………

Moreover, don’t forget to share this piece with your friends.



images of paint

Many will wonder how polymer relates with paints, or how polymers (plastics or nylon, which is their foremost knowledge of polymers) are used in the production of paints. Well, there is no need to wonder any longer because I’ve put together this piece to educate you on how paints are polymeric products.

What is PAINT? Paint is any substance that is applied as a liquid or paste and dries into a solid coating and decorates, protects and prolongs life of the object or surface to which it has been applied, and acts as a barrier against environmental conditions. Paints are used in every aspect of life both industrial (automobile, marine, pipeline coating etc.) and domestic (houses). Although, I will not be going in details to explain the various application or uses in these aspects.

Paints comprises four major components which are;

  1. Binder (resin) 30%
  2. Solvent 40%
  3. Pigments 25%
  4. Additives 5%

BINDER: this is also referred to as the resin and it is a polymer which forms a matrix to hold the other components of the paints together. It forms a film, serves as the non-volatile vehicle that carries the other components of the paints and it is non-hazardous. The binder contains not less than 30% of the paint’s composition. Examples of polymers that are used as binders in paint production are; acrylics, epoxy, alkyd, polyurethane, vinyl, linseed oil. Paints are named according to their binders, and I will briefly discuss the three most common binders which are; acrylics, alkyd and epoxy.

  • Acrylics paints: these are the commonest paints and also the cheapest of them all. They are also the widely used paints because they are majorly for domestic purposes. Another name or acrylic paints is emulsion paint. They are mostly used for decorative and protective purposes such as painting the inside and outside of buildings. Specific polymers used in this are poly (vinyl acrylate), poly (vinyl alcohol), etc.
  • Alkyd paints: these are commonly known as gloss or oil paints and they are more expensive than the acrylic paints. They are mostly used for metal coating, and can be used for both industrial and domestic purposes (as metals are used in both our homes and industries). Specific polymers used for this purpose are alkyd resin which is gotten from polyol (propane-1,2,3-triol glycerol), dibasic acid (benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic phthalic anhydride) and a drying oil (linseed or soya bean oil); another polymer used for oil paints is polyurethane.
  • Epoxy paints: these are applied as sprays and varnishes. They are expensive and have high resistance to corrosion that is the reason they are used for specific purposes such as the painting an automobile, aircraft, ships, storage tanks etc. they are comprised of epoxides.

SOLVENT: this reduces the viscosity of the paint, keeps the paint liquid but evaporates on application. They are hazardous and it is the reason one needs to dispose paint remnants properly so as to avoid being a victim to this hazard. Chemicals such as kerosene, mineral spirit, toluene can be used as solvent in paint production.

PIGMENT: this provides colour and covering power to the paint. It also gives the opacity and helps in viscosity control. A typical example is azo-compounds.

ADDITIVES: these are chemicals that generally used as stabilizers, dryers, thickeners, preservatives, emulsifiers etc. during paint production. Examples are calcites, titanium dioxide and so on.

Surely it can be said that paints are polymer products and this piece has widened your knowledge about polymers and how useful they are to our environment.

I believe by now knowledge has been impacted to you or your memory refreshed as regards polymers and their products. Kindly do me a fovour by sharing this post on your facebook, twitter, google plus or better still post the link to your whatsapp contacts for them to come over here to benefit from this.

Are We Ready To Lead?

OrgChartResizeI keep on marvelling about the deluded nature of the youth of today, whenever the topic of national leadership is been considered. Recently, i watched a television program on one of the nation’s media TV station (I will not disclose name), where a political analyst that belongs to one of the political parties  in the country was interviewed, the presenter asked him, ‘What is the place of youth evolvement in the leadership of your party?’; and this was what he said, ‘The youth are not prepared and do not have the skill to handle pivotal positions’. On hearing this, I was so burdened and disheartened, because of his myopic view of the youth preparedness to attain leadership positions in vital associations or organization in the country. But on a second thought, I took a critical assessment of the youths of today and asked myself this question ‘Are we ready to lead’.

I could remember very well back in our primary and secondary school days, many of us wouldn’t want to be selected to act as the class prefect or Head perfect. We all chickened-out from leading one another and thus developing our leadership skills, or is it to become the course representative in a department? Many would run away from that due to the challenging situations that the position presents. Going away from the academic environment, whenever the youth find themselves in a social, political, financial or religious gathering, there is this tendency to always abscond from responsibilities to lead, chiefly because fear, lack of self believe or the feeling that they don’t have the experience or ability to lead.

This same youth that flee from leading are still the ones to criticize and slander the old public figures that assume the leadership positions in various organizations and steer the hem of affairs of the nation. I look forward to seeing a generation of youth that believe in themselves to achieve the impossible, conquer the undefeated and overcome the fear of the unknown that has always gotten the best of us.

I always have this mindset in me and I’ll love to share it with everyone, and it is that ‘Responsibility makes one responsible’. All through my childhood days I’ve always wanted to lead, no wonder I felt so bad when I was deprived the privilege to attain my very first leadership position (to become the Time Keeper, when I was in pry 5). Notwithstanding, I was presented the opportunity to lead a larger class when I got into secondary school, of which I embraced and subsequently attained other positions in my senior classes, up until college

I don’t really want to, make this piece as a medium of social publicity of myself, I only wish to use myself as an example of what most of us, the youths, should desire. Entrepreneural mindset is also a mindset of leadership, so leadership does not only mean looking for positions to chair, but to be leadership minded. To always have the passion to lead. But before you can lead, you’ll first need to learn to lead yourself. Because if you can’t lead yourself, you’ll find it difficult to lead others properly, and we learn to lead by reading leadership books, mentoring and most of all embracing challenges and see them as an avenue to to shine. Considering David in the Bible as a case study; when he was sent by his father to meet his brethren in the battle field, and heard Goliath talking and the army of Israel hiding themselves. Within himself, he saw that challenge as an opportunity to shine and excel. So also do we need to embrace challenges.

Today, that we are experiencing economic downsizing, restructuring of the political system , degradation of the social and moral values, bewildered security system and discreditted religious values. My question to the youth is ‘Are We Ready To Lead?’. Are we ready to pick up the challenge to defeat the security Goliath of our days? Are we ready to turn around the poor economic situation of our nation by becoming enterprising and entrepreneural? Its high time we stopped being over dependent on the government to solve our problems. We need to forget the past, stop putting blames on one another and arise to our present situation to see a way of salvaging our future.









The academic environment is a very challenging environment that if full of distractions, stress and a whole lot that requires the attention of the scholar. The desire of every student is to excel in his/her academics even in the midst of these challenging situations in school, and for one to excel, one needs to make A’s in his/her courses. That is the reason why i have taken out my time to draft out steps on how you can make straight A’s in all your subject/course, thus excel in school

Step1: Work with Your Lecturer (… Because He Is Your Coach)

Every lecturer is looking for students who are serious about the subject at hand, who will work hand in hand with him/her in the classroom. You’re to consider your lecturer a friend in learning and guidance (someone who is there to help you). So many students think of their lecturer as an enemy, wicked, dictator or someone who forces them to sit and be quiet and gives them assignments. You need to realize that no matter the drilling or piles of assignment your lecturer gives to you; his/her sole aim is to bring out the best in you. Here’s how to work better with your lecturers:

  • Show respect to him/her by not making mockery or jesting of his accent, mannerism or teaching pattern
  • Show interest by participating in class
  • Start and finish the topic with him/her, shun absenteeism
  • Try to understand their teaching pattern
  • Know their dos and don’ts
  • Think of them as coaches and friends, and appreciate their efforts

Step2: Never Miss a Class (… It Could Be Very Difficult to Catch Up)

Most test questions come from important points your lecturer present in class. Everyday your lecturer covers a topic(s) and sometimes exposes key areas of concentration. Therefore, missing class would really create a knowledge gap in your memory and you could find it very difficult to catch up. Impromptu tests are no more a new thing today, so missing classes could pose a stumbling block to optimal success. Attending classes helps you to get first hand explanation of every topic and thus makes reading more enjoyable. Ensure you’re punctual to classes and endeavour to sit up front because its aids your receptivity and prevents distractions.

Step3: Take Notes during Classes (… It Helps You to Be an Active Listener)

As it is popularly said the faintest pen is sharper than the smartest brain, careful note taking and note keeping are important tools of success in any course. No matter how simple, concise or complicated the course might be, always ensure you take note of what is been taught. While taking notes, always look out for key points and potential exam questions. The difference between hearing and listening is concentration, note taking offers you the opportunity to concentrate and thus listen to the lecture. Note taking helps to inhibit absent mindedness, distraction, side traction, dullness and poor understanding. It encapsulates you from distractions and positions your mind into listening.

Step4: Review Your Notes, Study Your Textbooks, Materials And Complete Your Assignment (… It Enhances Better Understanding)

A student who reviews whatsoever s/he learnt within the first 24hrs tends to have better understanding than one who doesn’t. Ensure you revise all topics that were taught during the week by weekend. Use prescribed textbooks and materials when studying your courses. Completing assignment as well gives you a better understanding and also puts your brain to test at your leisure time. Never see assignments as punishment, rather see it as an avenue to know more and to become more skilful. Ensure you complete your assignments before time and submit when due. What differentiates assignment from test/examination is just the limited time allotted and supervision. Therefore, you need to take them seriously. Also never relegate your practical work to the background because it plays a vital role to achieving success in the course.

Step5: Study Ahead Of the Next Class (… It Serves As an Aroma for the Meal to Come)

Always stay at least a step ahead of every topic that is to be taught in the next class. When you study ahead, you will end up getting a better understanding of the topic when it’s been taught in class. It gives you a foretaste of the lecture and makes you to be test-ready. You also need to adopt a strategy for studying, as it will serve as a guide to effective study. Avoid being a cram, pour and forget (CPF) student. Seek to know and to become a master of it, because that will make you a better student on the long run. It’s very important for you to marry your studies with prayers and proclamations of faith.

Step6: Prove Your Worth On The D-Day (…. Because it’s The Indicator for the Overall Reaction)

Examination is not a true test of knowledge, many will argue; but it stands as the only medium that the academic institution uses to ascertain the student’s level of understanding and intelligence. The onus is therefore on the student to prove his/her worth on that very day of examination. Ensure you must have reviewed and revised your notes, textbooks, materials more than once before you step into the examination hall. While in the examination hall, do well to observe these

  • Always put your complete trust in God
  • Be self-confident and comport yourself as a good scholar ought to (do not be tensed up, scared or indecisive)
  • Ensure you understand all instructions before reading the questions
  • Ensure you understand the questions before attempting to answer
  • Start with the question you understand most and thereafter proceed in descending order
  • Concentrate solely on your work and avoid distraction of any sort
  • If a question proves very difficult, leave it, go to the next questions and afterwards come back to it
  • If it’s a theory question (calculation) ensure you are meticulous and adhere to procedures given to you in class
  • After attempting all questions, don’t rush out of the hall immediately; ensure you crosscheck your work over and over again before submitting.

These steps have been tested and trusted by myself and also by some great scholars, and I believe if you could try them out in your academics, they will prove fruitful.

Polymer in Nigeria

Polymer, the word sounds so strange to the Nigerian public. The foremost knowledge of polymer to them being the sachet water “pure water” packaging and the common polyethylene film “waterproof”.

But little does the public know that Polymer is all that gives them their daily comfort (matrass, clothing), beautifies their homes (paint), protect them from the harsh weather (clothing), prevents them from electrical shocks (most insulators), forster their injury recovery (prosthesis), helps in storing information  (paper), package their foods (PS), store their water and liquids (plastics), serve as casing for most of their electronic devices, a component of their DNA and has been the most widely used engineering material of this present generation.

The knowledge of polymers, will help Nigerians to know how to how to make effective use of it and also to help them avoids some of its hazards such as (non biodegradable, carcinogenic etc) although research worked have been carried out in most of these areas so as to curtail these demerits.

This blog will serve as an avenue for every Nigerian to get up close and personal with this material, polymer, therefore, knowing diversified areas of application, recent researches in the field, how to avoid it hazards and so on.